توجه ! این یک نسخه آرشیو شده می باشد و در این حالت شما عکسی را مشاهده نمی کنید برای مشاهده کامل متن و عکسها بر روی لینک مقابل کلیک کنید : How to manage large classes”

10-08-2013, 09:08 PM
“How to manage large classes”

S.Rokni, English teacher of Azarm preparatory Center

Abstract :
Is enlarging the class size a valid solution to the shortage of personnel and material resources ?How to maintain quality with reduced resources through examples and guidelines? What problems are associated with the teaching of English in large classes? What strategies can the teachers in large classes adopt to cope with these problems?This essay full or examples from many different discipline and helps many teachers who would face the challenges of the large classes. Apart from the many commonly held disadvantages,are there any advantages of teaching English in large classes
Key words:
Advantages and disadvantages of large classes –Tips plagiarism- disciplines- Physical , psychological and technical problems of large classes-Mixed abilities -share ideas. Collegues
How to effectively teach large classes has long been of concern to all English teaching departments.
Class size negatively affecting the quality of teaching and instructor effectiveness.This is particularly important because most division classes are over fifty students and the instructor affected the quality of classes more than did class size.It may surprise many teachers to know that classes rated best by students tended to be a little larger than the worst rated classes
When does class size" Make a Difference" ? Results have often been mixed , with some methods of instruction favoring small classes and other methods being as or more effective in large classes.
Large classes are as effective as small classes when the goals involve learning factual information and comprehending that information. When traditional achievement tests are used to measure learning , large classes compare well with smaller classes that have been found more effective when instructional goals involve higher level cognitive skills including application, analysis , and synthesis.Smaller classes provide for greater contact between students and teachers , which appears to be most needed for students with low motivation,those with little knowledge of the subject matter ,or those who have difficulty grasp in conceptual material. Smaller classes are also more effective than large ones in affecting student attitudes.In sum, the optimal size of a class depends on the instructional goals being pursued
The main advantage smaller classes have over larger ones is that they provide students with greater opportunities for interaction with subject matter, with the professor and with one another. Here are some suggestions that seem appear on nearly every list of large class “how to`s people” have varying opinions on how “large” the number of students should be in a so called “large” class. There can be no quantitative definition of what constitutes a “large class”, as perceptions of this will vary from context to context
However , most English teachers generally agree that a language class with 50-60 or more is “large” enough. Now this essay tries to give some advice on how to deal with a relatively large number of students in a class, what are the difficulties faced by teachers, and kind of activities are more suitable for such classes?

Physical layout
- check out the room in advance.
- Test the projection of your voice in the room
- What equipment do you need to order?
- Can your materials be seen from the back of the room?
- Be prepared in case the technology fails.

10-08-2013, 09:09 PM
Part 1
Tips for teaching large classes
1. Personalize , personalize,personalize: learn and use the names of your students, even in a large class.As difficult as this is , it goes a long way toward personalizing the class.You can have successfully learn student name by having seating charts, requiring students to attend office hours in small groups, taking pictures of the class ( with student permission), arriving to class early and greeting students as they enter, and conversing with students over email.
2. Avoiding plagiarism :There is a general perception that the likelihood of plagiarism is exacerbated by large classes. If this is the case, one reason students may deliberately cheat in a large class is because they may feel somewhat anonymous and “lost in the crowd” and therefore believe they are less likely to be caught. Alternatively , if students in large classes plagiarise unitentionally this might be as a result of having limited or no opportunity to check referencig and /or collaboration conventions with a lecturer or tutor. A lack of clear understanding of assessment requirements is particulalry an issue for some first year and many other students, for whom higher education referencing and colaboration “rules” are unfamiliar.
3. Develop good disciplines in a large class for better management:
*Establish a code of behaviour that is created by teacher and learners together. It should state clear basic rules of conduct that learners understand, such as:
-They have to work quietly
-They may talk , but not loudly
- children who have finished the lesson tasks can read a book to keep them busy.
*Use the environment outside the classroom:It offers a new,different space when children get noisy or bored ,and helps to reduce overcrowding.
- you can also work with some groups inside the classroom while the other groups are working outside (use different tasks or the same task)
- You need to set up outdoor activities clearly and carefully and monitor them.
Appoint responsible group leaders who can help maintain discipline.They can also give out and take in work for the groups, and explain what groups must do. Remember that:

-It’s always a good idea to split the class up into . small discussion groups ,of not more than 6 ,or ideally 3, 4 .Pair work is also useful.Another way to tap on the synergy of large classes ,is having class activities like gramer and vocabulary competitions , or even asking each to act out a drama .That way, every student feels motivated enough to respond in class .And giving the students something to prepare at home for presentationat the next class,give every student the chance to"show off"in class.
Part 2
–The learning environment of the large class is safe and relaxing .
In the large class, students are very active ,but in the small class, everyone keeps silent.
Students feel relaxed in the large class. They have nothing to fear about .
In the large class, students have their own time and space to think about what they are learning.

-A student can’t learn very well when she is under the pressure of being asked by the teacher to answer any questions. In the large class, she feels s/he is learning in a safe environment , and therefore s/he can focus on learning.
-In the large class , every time a question is raised by the teacher , there are always some students who can come up with some answers. A student can compare and think about the answers.
In the large class , students can quietly listen to what the teacher says and put them into their hearts.
-There is some freedom in the large class.If a student has already known what the teacher is teaching, s/he can preview what’s to be taught or do something more useful.
Part3:The problems associated with teaching in large classes can be physical, psychological and technical.
-Discomfort: Many teachers are worried by the physical constraints imposed by large numbers in confined classrooms.They feel unable to promote student interaction, since there is no room to move about .Some teachers also feel that teaching in large classes is physically very wearing.
-Control :Teachers are often worried by discipline aspects of large classes.They feel they are unable to control what is happening, and that the classes become too noisy.

- Individual attention: Many teachers are concerned that are neglecting the needs of their students as individuals.
-Evaluation: Teachers feel a responsibility for checking all of their student’s work , and are worried if they cannot do so.
-Learning effectiveness: All teachers want their students to learn English. They are understandably worried if they don`t know who is learning what.

10-08-2013, 09:10 PM
However, problems such as these are not impossible to be solved, or at least partially. In fact what the teachers perceive as problems associated with large classes sometimes may not be so problematic to the students. The following questionnaire shows what the students who are learning English both in large and small classes think about the large classes
There is a sense of competition in the large class.
The atmosphere in the large class is relatively better and more lively. Students from different small groups are secretly competing with one another , which enhances learning.
When a student sees so many students studying English hard in the same class, s/he also have to study hard
-The student can always learn not only from the teacher, but also from their classmates .s/he can see clearly the distance between herself/himself and others, which makes him/her work harder.
-Because the students are learning with the students from other groups their sense of competition is strengthened. The students feel that they can’t afford to lose or to - be left behind
Large class.. brings the students into an atmosphere of competition
Learning in a large class is an interesting and novel experience

-The lively atmosphere in the large class can stimulate students’ learning .
-In high school , students are used to have large English classes. It’s a wonderful thing that a number of students sit together and learn English in a very think English studying climate
Learning in a large class helps students to make more friends
-It (large class ) helps students make many friends from other classes.
-In the large class , students get to know more people and it is more likely for students to know people who share them interests and hobbies

Part 4

The use of pair and group work is essential if you are to involve all the members of the class .
By pairing off weaker and stronger students and involving both you should ensure maximum participation of all the students
A second area of activity that can be productive in mixed ability classes is project work.Again ,this can work successfully using mixed groups where the stronger help the weaker but another approach is to from groups that are at approximately the same level and assign different tasks that are appropriate to the level of each group
A third area is that of homework.If you set the whole class the same homework task irrespective of level, then you will have expect very mixed results.As with progress tests, the purpose of homework should be to consolidate class work
Choral drilling can be an effective way of involving weaker or shy students.
It can give excellent practice in rhythm and intonation,as well as reinforcing word order and grammatical structure
Finally,be diplomatic in your questioning techniques.Try to avoid putting weaker students “on the spot” by nominating them to be the first to answer a question in open class. Instead, try to encourage a culture of attentive listening in the classroom so that you ask a stronger student first and then ask a weaker student to repeat the answer. It may take time but once this style of interaction becomes habitual it can be very productive in terms of class dynamics
Part 5
A.Share ideas with the teachers of large classes
One of the easiest and cheapest ways to start collaborative teaching is to swap ideas . Teachers often do this anyway. You can formalize this process at your school in two ways.
Organize a folder entitled Ideas and Tips Divide it into sections (either by level , or by theme ) and ask other teachers to contribute.For a project like this to work you really have to have someone in charge of keeping the folder or folders in order. Why not rotate that duty among teachers ? you could also have “Tip or Activity the Week” that you can post on the office wall
Offer to organize a meeting to exchange ideas at your work. All you need is a time and a place where teachers can meet
Sharing ideas in your school can be beneficial for all involved .

10-08-2013, 09:12 PM
Part 6B.Start a teacher discussion group about the management of large classes

This aspect of collaborative teaching means going further than just swapping tips and materials. Get together with a group of other teachers (or even just one other teacher !) to exchange ideas and methods and reflect on your teaching.This could be discuss problems you have had with a certain class or course book , to share good and bad moments in class or to reflect on a particular aspect of your teaching.It could be a formalized meeting with other teachers at the school or a more informal meeting.

Here are some directions that a teacher discussion group could take
The group meets to discuss discipline problems in their classes and ways of dealing with them.The group meets to offer advice and suggestions to one member who is having trouble motivating a class
Each member of the group writes some reflections on two different classes one which went well and one which didn’t go so well,Teachers come together and exchange reflections. They then discuss the classes
Part 7C. Observe a colleague teaching in a large classPeer observation is a great way to get new ideas and see how others deal with everyday classroom occurrences.Have you ever wondered what was going on in the classroom next door? Why was it so quiet or why was there so much laughter ? Try it !!!Conclusion:However, Those teachers and they are numerous – who have to cope with classes that contain 50 or more learners are therefore often ill- prepared to deal with the situation in which they find themselves in schools .Most English teachers tend to view teaching English in large classes rather negatively
They often associate large English classes with disorderliness, lack of control, lack of student’s attentiveness, lack of teacher – student interactions, and therefore, lack in efficiency and effectiveness
Anyway, is the size of the class since as soon as the number of groups passes a certain number , it is difficult to control what happens go further by saying that anything you can do in a large class you can do better in a small one
However ,not all English teachers think that class size matters.
Such teachers would say that good teaching is good teaching :what holds true for small classes also holds true for large ones. Recent research shows that "Reductions in class size" to less than 20 students without changes in instructional methods cannotguarantee improved academic achievement.and that class size appears to have more influence on student attitudes,attention, interest ,and motivation than on academic achievement. In reality , it is not very uncommon that some teachers enjoy teaching inlarge classes and they feel that if proper strategies are adopted and the classes are well- organized , they may have a greater sense of achievement.As Felder states “that the instructors satisfaction may be even greater in the large classes “.But when you do it with 40 or more you know you’ve really accomplished something.References:1. Dr Susan Bardhun, It’s for Teachers, Issue 5 , March 2003 .2. Angi Malderez ,English Teaching professional , Issue 19, April 2001.3. Mckeachie , W,J.et. al ,. 1994. Teaching Tips : Strategies, Research and Theory for college and University Teachers.9th edition) .lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company.
By : Gh . Abbasian , English Teacher And M.A Student General Linguistic