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O M I D
06-17-2012, 06:36 PM
THE EVOLUTION OF
FOREIGN & SECOND LANGUAGE EDUCATION

Jill Kerper Mora, Ed.D.
San Diego State University



CONTRIBUTIONS OF OTHER DISCIPLINES
TO FOREIGN AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING

http://pnu-club.com/imported/mising.jpgLINGUISTICS
Description of the components and structure of language
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Grammar
Lexicon
Discourse analysis
Concept of language universals
Surface vs. deep structure of language
http://pnu-club.com/imported/mising.jpgPSYCHOLINGUISTICS
Understanding of the process of language acquisition in a first and second language
Competence vs. performance
Affective variables in language learning
Cognitive strategies of language learners
Effects of bilingualism on cognitive development
http://pnu-club.com/imported/mising.jpgSOCIOLINGUISTICS
Perception of the total language environment: Communication & the functions of language
Cultural factors that influence language learning
Social and interpersonal language learning variables
Studies of language variations, language prestige and bilingualism in social contexts
http://pnu-club.com/imported/mising.jpgEDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Understanding of self-esteem and motivation in students
Sequential nature of language learning
Theories of cognitive development and learning strategies

Elements of sound curriculum design
Characteristics of effective teaching


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O M I D
06-17-2012, 06:37 PM
CLASSICAL PERIOD
EDUCATION AS AN ARM OF THE THEOCRACY
Purpose of education to teach religious orthodoxy and good moral character
EMPHASIS ON LEARNING TO READ & WRITE
Little importance placed on higher education
LATIN GRAMMAR SCHOOL
Latin and Greek learned to understand the Holy Scriptures
MODERN LANGUAGES
Learned by studying abroad or from private tutors
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AMERICAN REVOLUTION TO THE CIVIL WAR
THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT
Expanding trade and commerce
CULTURAL NATIONALISM
Careers available in book-keeping and foreign trade for children of the upper-class
SECULAR CONTROL OF EDUCATION
Emergence of academies & high schools
MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING
Begins in mid-eighteen century. Considered a "frill" subject; not enough of a "mental discipline"
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THE "BOOM PERIOD"--CIVIL WAR TO WORLD WAR I
TAX-SUPPORTED PUBLIC EDUCATION
Decline of private academies
DECLINE IN LATIN & CLASSICAL STUDIES
German & French the most popular languages
DOMINANCE OF TRADITIONAL METHODS
Emphasis on memorization and grammar-translation methods; reading a foreign language
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (MLA) IN 1883
Stressed need for L2 study as intellectual discipline
EMERGENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
Psychological theory and practice influence teaching methods and learning theory
INTRODUCTION OF THE "DIRECT METHOD"
Role of L1 in L2 learning reassessed

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WORLD WAR I TO 1952
POST-WAR ISOLATIONISM
Disillusion with American omnipotence in world affairs, failure of the League of Nations
GOAL TO EDUCATE ALL AMERICA'S CHILDREN
Focus away from education of the elite; foreign language study only for the "college bound"
"Life-adjustment" and "progressive" education
THE "MELTING POT"
Assimilation or "Americanization" of immigrants stressed as the role of the public schools
EMERGENCE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY & LINGUISTICS
Leonard Bloomfield criticizes L2 methodologies; declares "primacy of oral language"
BEHAVIORISM
B.F. Skinner and Verbal Behavior; stimulus-response learning theory; emphasis on scientific methods of observation

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O M I D
06-17-2012, 06:38 PM
1950’s TRENDS THAT LAST INTO 1960'S
AGE OF MATERIAL COMFORT & PSYCHOLOGICAL DISCOMFORT
Era of bomb shelters, "hippies", rise of subcultures, the "Great Society"
EXPANDING ACADEMIC, VOCATIONAL & GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Public schools see as the vehicle for progress and social change
NEW APPROACHES TO TEACHING
Team teaching; non-graded classes; open classrooms; individualized instruction; programmed instruction; flexible and "core curriculum" scheduling
THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/ALMMethods.htm)
A marriage of Stimulus-Response (B.F. Skinner) learning theory and linguistics
RISE AND FALL OF MEDIA AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
Diffusion and later "abandonment" of the language laboratory; growing expansion of technology
1952--William Riley Parker's THE NATIONAL INTEREST AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Expounds on how expanding global interests of the United States require people who are multilingual and multicultural for business, industry, foreign relations, education
1957--LAUNCH OF THE RUSSIAN SPUTNIK
Resulted in the National Defense Education Act in 1958
1957--CHOMSKY'S SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES
Emergence of generative-transformational grammar; the competence/performance distinction

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The 1960’s WEDDING OF DISCIPLINES
1964--PENFIELD'S THE UNCOMMITTED CORTEX
Emergence of psycholinguistic theory and interest in childhood vs. adult bilingualism
EMERGENCE OF ECLECTICISM
The "great debate" over L2 methods resulting from disillusion with audiolingual method; impact of cognitive psychology; examination of L2 teaching "mythology"
COMPETENCY-BASED EDUCATION
Age of social engineering; emergence of the behavioral objective & Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive and affective objectives
RISE OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
Student-centered classrooms; explorations in values education; cognitive styles; attitudes & motivation; group dynamics
"BACK-TO-THE-BASICS" MOVEMENT
Disassembling of "innovations"; emphasis on "accountability"; reforms in teacher education to emphasize knowledge of subject matter vs. pedagogy
ABOLITION OF LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS
De-emphasis of grammar instruction; focus on pragmatic L2 instruction & communicative competence
INCORPORATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS IN L2 THEORY & TEACHING
Examination of the nature of language proficiency in varying contexts
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O M I D
06-17-2012, 06:39 PM
LANGUAGE EDUCATION 1970 TO THE PRESENT
THE BILINGUAL EDUCATION ACT OF 1968 & 1974
(Title VII) & Lau v. Nichols. Emphasis on second vs. foreign language studies. Rise of Paolo Freire’s critical pedagogy; cultural pluralism; acculturation; multicultural education. Focus on teaching L2 culture in the classroom.
EMERGENCE OF NEW METHODOLOGIES & CURRICULUM MODELS
Innovative methods include the Natural or Communicative Approach; Social-therapeutic orientations such as Community Learning, Suggestopedia; the Notional-Functional Syllabus
"ICEBERGS" & "BALLOONS"
Theorists link cognitive and linguistic development and explain bilingual language development and competence
SHIFT IN EMPHASIS TO LITERACY AND CONTENT AREA INSTRUCTION
Constructivist theory leads to Whole Language Movement and renewed study of the role of language proficiency in reading & writing; Methods focus on integration of language and content area teaching such as Sheltered English, SDAIE, English Language Development; Integrated Thematic Instruction
ENGLISH-ONLY VERSUS ENGLISH PLUS MOVEMENTS
Heated debate in political arenas and the public sector over the role of foreign languages and bilingualism in American society; Emergence of Immersion vs. transitional and two-way bilingual education models. Rise of the English-only Movement; Proposition 227 (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Prop227PPT/Default.htm) in California virtually eliminates bilingual education programs; "Sheltered Immersion" becomes the state- mandated model of instruction; bilingual education preserved and expanded in Texas, New York and Florida.
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Sources
Chastain, K. (1976). Developing Second-language Skills: Theory to Practice. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally College Publishing.
Brown, H.D. (1980). Principles of Language Learning & Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Diaz-Rico, L.T. & Weed, K.Z. (1995). The Cross-cultural Language and Academic Development Handbook. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.




Dr. Mora's HomePage (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Default.htm)

Top of (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Pages/TrendsL2.htm#Head) this page (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Pages/TrendsL2.htm#Head)

MoraModules Menu (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/MoraModules/Default.htm)


PLC 915 Syllabus (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Pages/914Sylb.htm)
Ed 516 Syllabus (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Pages/516Sylb.htm)
TE 639 Syllabus (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/Pages/TE639.htm)


L2 Teaching Methods (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/L2MethodsMMdl/)
Principles & Practices
of L2 Methods (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/ALMMethods.htm)
Theoretical Basis for
the Natural Approach (http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/NatApprTheory-Eng/)