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نمایش نتایج: از شماره 1 تا 5 از مجموع 5

موضوع: اصطلاحات رايج در مديريت زنجيره تامين. Supply Chain Management Idioms

  1. #1
    Borna66 آواتار ها
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    شغل , تخصص
    طراح و تحلیل گر حرفه ای وب
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    Icon30 اصطلاحات رايج در مديريت زنجيره تامين. Supply Chain Management Idioms

    کليه اصطلاحات از ديکشنري APICS استخراج شده است. ABC Classification: دسته بندي آيتمها به صورت گروهي و به ترتيب نزولي با توجه به ميزان هزينه بري ساليانه آنها. اين محاسبه از ضرب قيمت در حجم هر پروژه معين مي گردد. اطلاعات بدست آمده از اين محاسبه به سه گروه A,B,C تقسيم بندي مي گردد. گروه A شامل آيتمهايي است که 10 الي 20 درصد آيتمهاي پروژه را به خود اختصاص مي دهند و 50 تا 80 درصد حجم مالي پروژه به آنها تخصيص داده مي شود. گروه B شامل آيتمهايي است که 20 درصد آيتمهاي پروژه را به خود اختصاص مي دهند و تا 20 درصد حجم مالي پروژه به آنها تخصيص داده مي شود. گروه C شامل آيتمهايي است که 60 درصد آيتمهاي پروژه را به خود اختصاص مي دهند و تا 10 درصد حجم مالي پروژه را به خود اختصاص مي دهند. اصل ABC بر تمرکز بيشتر روي گروهاي با حجم مالي بالاتر تمرکز دارد و از قانون پارتو پيروي مي کند. از اين روش جهت مديريت موجودي ها، سفارش مواد، فروش و خريد نيز مي توان استفاده کرد.




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  3. #2
    Borna66 آواتار ها
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    پیش فرض

    ABC Classification — Classification of a group of items in decreasing order of annual dollar volume (price multiplied by projected volume) or other criteria. This array is then split into three classes, called A, B, and C. The A group usually represents 10% to 20% by number of items and 50% to 70% by projected dollar volume. The next grouping, B, usually represents about 20% of the items and about 20% of the dollar volume. The C class contains 60% to 70% of the items and represents about 10% to 30% of the dollar volume. The ABC principle states that effort and money can be saved through applying looser controls to the low-dollar-volume class items than will be applied to high-dollar-volume class items. The ABC principle is applicable to inventories, purchasing, sales, etc. Syn: ABC analysis, distribution by value, Pareto analysis. See: 80-20, Pareto’s law.
    Assemble-to-order — An environment where a product or service can be assembled after receipt of a customer’s order. The key components (bulk, semifinished, intermediate, subassembly, fabricated, purchased, packaging, etc.) used in the assembly or finishing process are planned and possibly stocked in anticipation of a customer order. Receipt of an order initiates assembly of the customized product. This strategy is useful where a large number of end products (based on the selection of options and accessories) can be assembled from common components. Syn: finish-to-order. See: make-to-order, make-to-stock.

    Available-to-promise (ATP) — The uncommitted portion of a company’s inventory and planned production, maintained in the master schedule to support customer order promising. The ATP quantity is the uncommitted inventory balance in the first period and is normally calculated for each period in which a MPS receipt is scheduled. In the first period, ATP includes on-hand inventory less customer orders that are due and overdue. See: order promising.

    Back scheduling — A technique for calculating operation start dates and due dates. The schedule is computed starting with the due date for the order and working backward to determine the required start date and/or due dates for each operation. Syn: backward scheduling. Ant: forward scheduling.

    Backward scheduling — Syn: back scheduling.

    Base series — A standard succession of values of demand-over-time used in forecasting seasonal items. This series of factors is usually based on the relative level of demand during the corresponding period of previous years. The average value of the base series over a seasonal cycle will be 1.0. A figure higher than 1.0 indicates that the demand for that period is more than average; a figure less than 1.0 indicates less than the average. For forecasting purposes, the base series is superimposed upon the average demand and trend in demand for the item in question. Syn: base index. See: seasonal index, seasonality.
    Bias — A consistent deviation from the mean in one direction (high or low). A normal property of a good forecast is that it is not biased. See: average forecast error.

    Capacity management — The function of establishing, measuring, monitoring, and adjusting limits or levels of capacity in order to execute all manufacturing schedules; i.e., the production plan, master production schedule, material requirements plan, and dispatch list. Capacity management is executed at four levels: resource planning, rough-cut capacity planning, capacity requirements planning, and input/output control.

    Capacity planning — The process of determining the amount of capacity required to produce in the future. This process may be performed at an aggregate or product-line level (resource planning), at the master-scheduling level (rough-cut capacity planning), and at the detailed or work-center level (capacity requirements planning). See: capacity requirements planning, resource planning, rough-cut capacity planning.

    Capacity requirements plan — A time-phased display of present and future load (capacity required) on all resources based on the planned and released supply authorizations (i.e., orders) and the planned capacity (capacity available) of these resources over a span of time. See: load profile.

    Capacity requirements planning (CRP) — The function of establishing, measuring, and adjusting limits or levels of capacity. The term capacity requirements planning in this context refers to the process of determining in detail the amount of labor and machine resources required to accomplish the tasks of production. Open shop orders and planned orders in the MRP system are input to CRP, which through the use of parts routings and time standards translates these orders into hours of work by work center by time period. Even though rough-cut capacity planning may indicate that sufficient capacity exists to execute the MPS, CRP may show that capacity is insufficient during specific time periods. See: capacity planning.

    Carrying cost — Cost of carrying inventory, usually defined as a percentage of the dollar value of inventory per unit of time (generally one year). Carrying cost depends mainly on the cost of capital invested as well as such costs of maintaining the inventory as taxes and insurance, obsolescence, spoilage, and space occupied. Such costs vary from 10% to 35% annually, depending on the type of industry. Carrying cost is ultimately a policy variable reflecting the opportunity cost of alternative uses for funds invested in inventory.

    Critical ratio — A dispatching rule that calculates a priority index number by dividing the time to due date remaining by the expected elapsed time to finish the job. For example,
    time remaining = 30 = 0.75
    work remaining 40



    A ratio less than 1.0 indicates the job is behind schedule, a ratio greater than 1.0 indicates the job is ahead of schedule, and a ratio of 1.0 indicates the job is on schedule.

    Demand — A need for a particular product or component. The demand could come from any number of sources, e.g., customer order or forecast, an interplant requirement, or a request from a branch warehouse for a service part or for manufacturing another product. At the finished goods level, demand data are usually different from sales data because demand does not necessarily result in sales; i.e., if there is no stock, there will be no sale.

    Demonstrated capacity — Proven capacity calculated from actual performance data, usually expressed as the average number of items produced multiplied by the standard hours per item. See: maximum demonstrated capacity.

    Dependent demand — Demand that is directly related to or derived from the bill of material structure for other items or end products. Such demands are therefore calculated and need not and should not be forecast. A given inventory item may have both dependent and independent demand at any given time. For example, a part may simultaneously be the component of an assembly and sold as a service part.

    Dispatching rule — The logic used to assign priorities to jobs at a work center.

    Dispatch list — A listing of manufacturing orders in priority sequence. The dispatch list, which is usually communicated to the manufacturing floor via hard copy or CRT display, contains detailed information on priority, location, quantity, and the capacity requirements of the manufacturing order by operation. Dispatch lists are normally generated daily and oriented by work center. Syn: work center schedule.

    Distribution — 1) The activities associated with the movement of material, usually finished products or service parts, from the manufacturer to the customer. These activities encompass the functions of transportation, warehousing, inventory control, material handling, order administration, site and location analysis, industrial packaging, data processing, and the communications network necessary for effective management. It includes all activities related to physical distribution, as well as the return of goods to the manufacturer. In many cases, this movement is made through one or more levels of field warehouses. Syn: physical distribution. 2) The systematic division of a whole into discrete parts having distinctive characteristics.

    Economic order quantity (EOQ) — A type of fixed-order-quantity model that determines the amount of an item to be purchased or manufactured at one time. The intent is to minimize the combined costs of acquiring and carrying inventory.
    The basic formula is:

    Quanity = 2 x annual demand x average cost of preparation

    annual inventory carrying costs percentage x unit cost



    Syn: economic lot size, minimum cost order quantity.

    Efficiency — A measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Efficiency measures how well something is performing relative to expectations; it does not measure output relative to any input. Efficiency is the ratio of actual units produced to the standard rate of product expected in a time period, or actual hours produced to standard hours, or actual dollar volume to standard dollar volume in a time period. For example, if there is a standard of 100 pieces per hour and 780 units are produced in one eight-hour shift, the efficiency is 780/800 multiplied by 100%, or 97.5%.

    80-20 — A rule referring to the Pareto principle. The principle suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. See: ABC classification.

    EOQ — Abbreviation for economic order quantity.

    EOQ=1 — Reducing setup time and inventory to the point where it is economically sound to produce in batches with a size of one. Often EOQ=1 is an ideal to strive for, like zero defects.

    Finite loading — Assigning no more work to a work center than the work center can be expected to execute in a given time period. The specific term usually refers to a computer technique that involves calculating shop priority revisions in order to level load operation by operation.

    Firm planned order (FPO) — A planned order that can be frozen in quantity and time. The computer is not allowed to change it automatically; this is the responsibility of the planner in charge of the item that is being planned. This technique can aid planners working with MRP systems to respond to material and capacity problems by firming up selected planned orders. In addition, firm planned orders are the normal method of stating the master production schedule. See: planning time fence.

    Forward flow scheduling — A procedure for building process train schedules that starts with the first stage and proceeds sequentially through the process structure until the last stage is scheduled.

    Independent demand — Demand for an item that is unrelated to the demand for other items. Demand for finished goods, parts required for destructive testing, and service parts requirements are examples of independent demand.

    Infinite loading — Calculation of the capacity required at work centers in the time periods required regardless of the capacity available to perform this work.

    Input/output control — A technique for capacity control where planned and actual inputs and planned and actual outputs of a work center are monitored. Planned inputs and outputs for each work center are developed by capacity requirements planning and approved by manufacturing management. Actual input is compared to planned input to identify when work center output might vary from the plan because work is not available at the work center. Actual output is also compared to planned output to identify problems within the work center. Syn: production monitoring. See: capacity control.

    Inventory turnover — The number of times than an inventory cycles, or "turns over," during the year. A frequently used method to compute inventory turnover is to divide the average inventory level into the annual cost of sales. For example, an average inventory of $3 million divided into an average cost of sales of $21 million means that inventory is turned over seven times. Syn: inventory turnover.

    Just-in-Time (JIT) — A philosophy of manufacturing based on planned elimination of all waste and continuous improvement of productivity. It encompasses the successful execution of all manufacturing activities required to produce a final product, from design engineering to delivery and including all stages of conversion from raw material onward. The primary elements of just-in-time are to have only the required inventory when needed; to improve quality to zero defects; to reduce lead times by reducing setup times, queue lengths, and lot sizes; to incrementally revise the operations themselves; and to accomplish these things at minimum cost. In the broad sense, it applies to all forms of manufacturing, job shop and process, as well as repetitive. Syn: short-cycle manufacturing, stockless production, zero inventories.

    Kanban — A method of Just-in-Time production that uses standard containers or lot sizes with a single card attached to each. It is a pull system in which work centers signal with a card that they wish to withdraw parts from feeding operations or suppliers. The Japanese word kanban, loosely translated, means card, billboard, or sign. The term is often used synonymously for the specific scheduling system developed and used by the Toyota Corporation in Japan. See: move card, production card, synchronized production.

    Lead time – 1) A span of time required to perform a process (or series of operations). 2) In a logistics context, the time between recognition of the need for an order and the receipt of goods. Individual components of lead time can include order preparation time, queue time, processing time, move or transportation time, and receiving and inspection time. Syn: total lead time. See: manufacturing lead time, purchasing lead time.

    Level of service — A desired measure (usually expressed as a percentage) of satisfying demand through inventory or by the current production schedule in time to satisfy the customers’ requested delivery dates and quantities. In a make-to-stock environment, level of service is sometimes calculated as the percentage of orders picked complete from stock upon receipt of the customer order, the percentage of line items picked complete, or the percentage of total dollar demand picked complete. In make-to-order and design-to-order environments, level of service is the percentage of time that the customer-requested or acknowledged date was met by shipping complete product quantities. Syn: measure of service, service level.

    Load — The amount of planned work scheduled for and actual work released to a facility, work center, or operation for a specific span of time. Usually expressed in terms of standard hours of work or, when items consume similar resources at the same rate, units of production.

    Load leveling — Spreading orders out in time or rescheduling operations so that the amount of work to be done in sequential time periods tends to be distributed evenly and is achievable. Although both material and labor are ideally level loaded, specific businesses and industries may load to one or the other exclusively (e.g., service industries). Syn: capacity smoothing, level loading. See: level schedule.

    Load profile — A display of future capacity requirements based on released and/or planned orders over a given span of time. See: capacity requirements plan, load projection.

    Make-to-order — A production environment where a product or service can be made after receipt of a customer’s order. The final product is usually a combination of standard items and items custom-designed to meet the special needs of the customer. Where options or accessories are stocked before customer orders arrive, the term assemble-to-order is frequently used. See: assemble-to-order, make-to-stock.

    Make-to-stock — A production environment where products can be and usually are finished before receipt of a customer order. Customer orders are typically filled from existing stocks, and production orders are used to replenish those stocks. See: assemble-to-order, make-to-order.

    Manufacturing order — A document, group of documents, or schedule conveying authority for the manufacture of specified parts or products in specified quantities. Syn: job order, manufacturing authorization, production order, production release, run order, shop order. See: assembly parts list, batch card, blend order, fabrication order, work order.

    Manufacturing strategy — A collective pattern of decisions that act upon the formulation and deployment of manufacturing resources. To be most effective, the manufacturing strategy should act in support of the overall strategic direction of the business and provide for competitive advantages (edges).

    Master production schedule (MPS) — 1) The anticipated build schedule for those items assigned to the master schedule. The master scheduler maintains this schedule, and in turn, it becomes a set of planning numbers that drives material requirements planning. It represents what the company plans to produce expressed in specific configurations, quantities, and dates. The master production schedule is not a sales forecast that represents a statement of demand. The master production schedule must take into account the forecast, the production plan, and other important considerations such as backlog, availability of material, availability of capacity, and management policies and goals. 2) The result of the master scheduling process. The master schedule is a presentation of demand, forecast, backlog, the MPS, the projected-on-hand inventory, and the available-to-promise quantity. See: master scheduler, master scheduling.

    Normal distribution — A particular statistical distribution where most of the observations fall fairly close to one mean, and a deviation from the mean is as likely to be plus as it is to be minus. When graphed, the normal distribution takes the form of a bell-shaped curve.

    On hand balance — The quantity shown in the inventory records as being physically in stock.

    Open order — 1) A released manufacturing order or purchase order. Syn: released order. 2) An unfilled customer order.

    Ordering cost — Used in calculating order quantities, the costs that increase as the number of orders placed increases. It includes costs related to the clerical work or preparing, releasing, monitoring, and receiving orders, the physical handling of goods, inspections, and setup costs, as applicable. Syn: acquisition cost.

    Order point — A set inventory level where, if the total stock on hand plus on order falls to or below that point, action is taken to replenish the stock. The order point is normally calculated as forecasted usage during the replenishment lead time plus safety stock. Syn: reorder point, statistical order point, trigger level. See: fixed reorder quantity inventory model.

    Order qualifiers — Those competitive characteristics that a firm must exhibit to be a viable competitor in the marketplace. For example, a firm may seek to compete on characteristics other than price, but in order to "qualify" to compete, its costs and the related price must be within a certain range to be considered by its customers.

    Order winners — Those competitive characteristics that cause a firm’s customers to choose that firm’s products and services over those of its competitors. Order winners can be considered to be competitive advantages for the firm. Order winners usually focus on one (rarely more than two) of the following strategic initiatives: price/cost, quality, delivery speed, delivery reliability, product design, flexibility, after-market service, and image.

    Pegging — In MRP and MPS, the capability to identify for a given item the sources of its gross requirements and/or allocations. Pegging can be thought of as active where-used information. See: requirements traceability.

    Perpetual inventory — An inventory recordkeeping system where each transaction in and out is recorded and a new balance is computed.

    Perpetual inventory record — A computer record or manual document on which each inventory transaction is posted so that a current record of the inventory is maintained.

    Physical distribution — Syn: distribution.

    Planned order — A suggested order quantity, release date, and due date created by the planning system’s logic when it encounters net requirements in processing MRP. In some cases, it can also be created by a master scheduling module. Planned orders are created by the computer, exist only within the computer, and may be changed or deleted by the computer during subsequent processing if conditions change. Planned orders at one level will be exploded into gross requirements for components at the next level. Planned orders, along with released orders, serve as input to capacity requirements planning to show the total capacity requirements by work center in future time periods. See: planning time fence.

    Planning horizon — The amount of time the master schedule extends into the future. This is normally set to cover a minimum of cumulative lead time plus time for lot sizing low-level components and for capacity changes of primary work centers or of key suppliers. See: cumulative lead time, planning time fence.

    Production Activity Control (PAC) — The function of routing and dispatching the work to be accomplished through the production facility and performing supplier control. PAC encompasses the principles, approaches, and techniques needed to schedule, control, measure, and evaluate the effectiveness of production operations. See: shop floor control.

    Production plan — The agreed-upon plan that comes from the aggregate (production) planning functions, specifically the overall level of manufacturing output planned to be produced, usually stated as a monthly rate for each product family (group of products, items, options, features, etc.). Various units of measure can be used to express the plan: units, tonnage, standard hours, number of workers, etc. The production plan is management’s authorization for the master scheduler to convert it into a more detailed plan, that is, the master production schedule. See: sales and operations planning, sales plan.

    Pull (system) — 1) In production, the production of items only as demanded for use or to replace those taken for use. 2) In material control, the withdrawal of inventory as demanded by the using operations. Material is not issued until a signal comes from the user. 3) In distribution, a system for replenishing field warehouse inventories where replenishment decisions are made at the field warehouse itself, not at the central warehouse or plant.

    Push (system) — 1) In production, the production of items at times required by a given schedule planned in advance. 2) In material control, the issuing of material according to a given schedule or issuing material to a job order at its start time. 3) In distribution, a system for replenishing field warehouse inventories where replenishment decision making is centralized, usually at the manufacturing site or central supply facility.

    Quality — Conformance to requirements or fitness for use. Quality can be defined through five principal approaches: (1) Transcendent quality is an ideal, a condition of excellence. (2) Product-based quality is based on a product attribute. (3) User-based quality is fitness for use. (4) Manufacturing-based quality is conformance to requirements. (5) Value-based quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price. Also, quality has two major components: (1) quality of conformance—quality is defined by the absence of defects, and (2) quality of design—quality is measured by the degree of customer satisfaction with a product’s characteristics and features.

    Random variation — A fluctuation in data that is caused by uncertain or random occurrences.

    Rated capacity — 1) The expected output capability of a resource from such data as planned hours, efficiency, and utilization. The rated capacity is equal to hours available x efficiency x utilization. Syn: calculated capacity, nominal capacity. 2) In the theory of constraints, rated capacity = hours available x efficiency x activation, where activation is a function of scheduled production and availability is a function of uptime. Syn: standing capacity.

    Released order — Syn: open order.

    Rough-cut capacity planning (RCCP) — The process of converting the master production schedule into requirements for key resources, often including labor, machinery, warehouse space, suppliers; capabilities, and, in some cases, money. Comparison to available or demonstrated capacity is usually done for each key resource. This comparison assists the master scheduler in establishing a feasible master production schedule. Three approaches to performing RCCP are the bill of labor (resources, capacity) approach, the capacity planning using overall factors approach, and the resource profile approach. See: bill of resources, capacity planning, capacity planning using overall factors, product load profile.

    Routing — Information detailing the method of manufacture of a particular item. It includes the operations to be performed, their sequence, the various work centers involved, and the standards for setup and run. In some companies, the routing also includes information on tooling, operator skill levels, inspection operations, and testing requirements, etc. Syn: bill of operations, instruction sheet, operation chart, operation list, operation sheet, route sheet, routing sheet. See: bill of labor, bill of resources.

    Safety lead time — An element of time added to normal lead time to protect against fluctuations in lead time so than an order can be completed before its real need date. When used, the MRP system, in offsetting for lead time, will plan both order release and order completion for earlier dates than it would otherwise. Syn: protection time, safety time.

    Safety stock — 1) In general, a quantity of stock planned to be in inventory to protect against fluctuations in demand or supply. 2) In the context of master production scheduling, the additional inventory and capacity planned as protection against forecast errors and short-term changes in the backlog. Overplanning can be used to create safety stock. Syn: buffer stock, reserve stock. See: hedge, inventory buffer.

    Safety time — Syn: safety lead time.

    Seasonal index — A number used to adjust data to seasonal demand. See: base series.

    Seasonality — A repetitive pattern of demand from year to year (or other repeating time interval) with some periods considerably higher than others. See: base series.

    Service level — Syn: level of service.

    Shop order — Syn: manufacturing order.

    Single-level where-used — Single-level where-used for a component lists each parent in which that component is directly used and in what quantity. This information is usually made available through the technique known as implosion.

    SKU — Acronym for stockkeeping unit.

    Standard hours — Syn: standard time.

    Standard time — The length of time that should be required to (1) set up a given machine or operation and (2) run one part, assembly, batch, or end product through that operation. This time is used in determining machine requirements and labor requirements. Standard time assumes an average worker following prescribed methods and allows time for rest to overcome fatigue. It is also frequently used as a basis for incentive pay systems and as a basis for allocating overhead in cost accounting systems. Syn: standard hours.

    Stockout — A lack of material, components, or finished goods that are needed. See: backorder.

    Stockout costs — The costs associated with a stockout. Those costs may include lost sales, backorder costs, expediting, and additional manufacturing and purchasing costs.

    Time fence — A policy or guideline established to note where various restrictions or changes in operating procedures take place. For example, changes to the master production schedule can be accomplished easily beyond the cumulative lead time, while changes inside the cumulative lead time become increasingly more difficult to a point where changes should be resisted. Time fences can be used to define these points. See: demand time fence, hedge, planning time fence.

    Total productive maintenance (TPM) — Preventive maintenance plus continuing efforts to adapt, modify, and refine equipment to increase flexibility, reduce material handling, and promote continuous flows. It is operator-oriented maintenance with the involvement of all qualified employees in all maintenance activities.

    Total quality management (TQM) — A term coined to describe Japanese-style management approaches to quality improvement. Since then, total quality management (TQM) has taken on many meanings. Simply put, TQM is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. TQM is based on the participation of all members of an organization in improving processes, products, services, and the culture they work in. The methods for implementing this approach are found in teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa, and J. M. Juran.

    Trend — General upward or downward movement of a variable over time, e.g., demand, process attribute.

    Two-bin system — A type of fixed-order system in which inventory is carried in two bins. A replenishment quantity is ordered when the first bin is empty. During the replenishment lead time, material is used from the second bin. When the material is received, the second bin (which contains a quantity to cover demand during lead time plus some safety stock) is refilled and the excess is put into the working bin. At this time, stock is drawn from the first bin until it is again exhausted. This term is also used loosely to describe any fixed-order system even when physical "bins" do not exist. Syn: bin reserve system. See: visual review system.

    Utilization — 1) A measure of how intensively a resource is being used to produce a good or a service. Utilization compares actual times used to available time. Traditionally, utilization is the ratio of direct time charged (run time plus setup time) to the clock time scheduled for the resource. This measure led to distortions in some cases. 2) In the theory of constraints, utilization is the ratio of actual time the resource is producing (run time only) to the clock time the resource is scheduled to produce.

    Work in process (WIP) — A product or products in various stages of completion throughout the plant, including all material from raw material that has been released for initial processing up to completely processed material awaiting final inspection and acceptance as finished product. Many accounting systems also include the value of semifinished stock and components in this category. Syn: in-process inventory.

    Work order — 1) An order to the machine shop for tool manufacture or equipment maintenance; not to be confused with a manufacturing order. 2) An authorization to start work on an activity (e.g., maintenance) or product. See: manufacturing order




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  4. #3
    Borna66 آواتار ها
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    عنوان کاربری
    مدير بازنشسته
    تاریخ عضویت
    Mar 2009
    محل تحصیل
    خيام-سهراب
    شغل , تخصص
    طراح و تحلیل گر حرفه ای وب
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    . Assemble to order‌ روشي است در تامين نياز مشتريان که در اين متد مونتاژ محصول نهايي بعد از سفارش گذاري مشتري انجام مي گردد. در واقع در اين روش محصولات پيش مونتاژ شده در انتظار مونتاژ مي ايستند تا سفارش مشتري برسد. در اين روش موجودي محصول نهايي بسيار اندک و به اندازه نياز آني مشتريان است. اين متدولوژي جهت سيستمهاي توليدي کاربرد دارد که داراي قطعات پيش مونتاژ شده مشابه و متعدد باشد که از ترکيبات مختلف اين محصولات نيمه ساخته محصولات نهايي متفاوتي حاصل گردد. به اين ترتيب پس از گرفتن نياز مشتري محصول مورد نظر او با توجه به ترکيب مورد نياز توسط مرحله مونتاژ تامين مي گردد.

    Available To Promise (ATP): به عبارتي ATP عبارت است از موجودي در دست توليد کننده که تعهد خاصي جهت تحويل دهي به مشتري ندارد و براي هر دوره با توجه به سفارشات ارسال شده به مشتري محاسبه مي گردد.ATP در Master Production Schedule نويد دهنده ساپورت سفارش مشتريان در دوره هاي بعدي مي باشد. به اين ترتbr /يب ATP براي دوره اول همان موجودي در دست توليد کننده است که پس از کسر سفارش اول مشتري محاسبه شده است و در دوره هاي بعدي با توجه به MPS مورد محاسبه قرار مي گيرد.

    Back scheduling: (Backward scheduling) يک تکنيک و متد براي محاسبه زمان دقيق شروع يک پروژه مي باشد با توجه به زمان تحويل دهي پروژه. در اين روش کليه محاسبات با توجه به زمان پايان پروژه که در ابتدا توسط دو طرف معامله تعين شده است، انجام مي شود و با يک تکنيک برگشتي و در نظر گرفتن کليه آيتمها زمان اول پروژه تعيين مي گردد.

    Base series: يک روش سلسله مراتبي استاندارد که جهت ارزشيابي نياز مشتريان در طول زمان مورد استفاده قرار مي گيرد و در پيش بيني آيتمهاي فصلي کاربرد دارد. اين سري از فاکتورها در واقع بر اساس نيازهاي طبقه بندي شده در دوره هاي مشخصي از سال قبل مي باشد. در اين روش براي هر يک از آيتمها يک مقدار متوسط درنظر مي گيرند و با 1.0 نمايش مي دهند و مقدارهاي پايين و بالاي مقدار متوسط را به عنوان معياري جهت اعلان مقادير و ارزشيابي استفاده مي کنند. در اين متد به هنگام دريافت نياز مشتريان با توجه به اطلاعات قبلي در فصول تعيين شده، مقدارهاي نياز را تعديل مي کنند.

    Capacity Management: عمل تعيين، اندازه گيري، نظارت و تنظيم محدوديتها و سطوح ظرفيت با توجه به برنامه زمان بندي شده توليد در راستاي تامين نياز مشتريان را مديريت ظرفيت گويند. منظور از برنامه هاي زمان بندي شده عبارت است از برنامه توليد، برنامه توليد جامع MPS‌، برنامه احتياجات مواد MRP‌ و ليست اقلام ارسالي. مديريت ظرفيتها در 4 سطح عمل مي کند: برنامه ريزي منابع، برنامه ريزي ظرفيتها به صورت سر انگشتي، برنامه ريزي نيازمنديهاي ظرفيت و کنترل وروديها و خروجيها.

    Capacity Planning: فرآيند برنامه ريزي ظرفيتها با توجه به نياز آتي توليد در راستاي تامين سرويس مورد نظر مشتريان. اين فرآيند شامل برنامه ريزي چيدمان هاي توليدي و نيروي انساني، تخصيص ظرفيتها و برنامه ريزي منابع انساني مورد نياز. همچنيني ممکن است در سطوح برنامه ريزي جامع شامل برنامه ريزي سرانگشتي و در سطوح اجرائي شامل برنامه ريزي نيازمنديهاي ظرفيت گردد.

    Capacity Requirements Plan: برنامه ريزي نيازمنديهاي ظرفيت يک برنامه زمان بندي شده به صورت فازي است که از يک طرف ظرفيت موجود را به عنوان اطلاعات اوليه در نظر گرفته و از طرف ديگر با توجه به برنامه نيازمندي مشتريان، ظرفيتهاي موجود را جهت تامين نياز آتي مشتريان تنظيم مي کند.

    ‍Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP): عمل پايه گذاري، اندازه گيري و تنظيم سطوح مختلف ظرفيت را برنامه احتياجات ظرفيت مي ناميم. در اين ادبيات CRP به مفهوم ميزان نيروي انساني و تجهيزات و ماشين آلات مورد نياز جهت پوشش دهي توليد است. سفارشات باز و سفارشات برنامه ريزي شده در سيستم برنامه ريزي احتياجات مواد MRP از وروديهاي اين سيستم است که با توجه به مصرف اين قطعات در خطوط توليد زمانهاي پايش آنها در دوره هاي زماني معيني محاسبه مي گردد. حتي اگر محاسبات سرانگشتي جهت برنامه ريزي ظرفيت بيانگر ظرفيت کافي در سيستم باشد، ممکن است محاسبات مربوط به MPS‌و ‍CRP بيانگر وجود محدوديت در ظرفيت در دوره زماني خاص محاسبه شده باشد.

    Carrying cost: هزينه نگهداري موجودي هاست و معمولا به صورت درصدي از موجودي کل در نظر گرفته مي شود، در يک دوره زماني معين (معمولا يک سال).اين هزينه به مواردي قبيل هزينه از دست رفته، مالياتها، بيمه، منسوخ شدن وفضاي در نظر گفته شده وابسته است. اين هزينه ها بين 10 تا 35 درصد کل موجودي تغيير مي کند و اين مساله به سياستهاي سرمايه گذاري و کنترل موجودي شرکتها وابسته است.

    ‍Critical ratio: نسبتي است براي اولويت بندي که از تقسيم مهلت زماني باقي مانده تا پايان تحويل دهي بر مدت زمان واقعي مورد نياز براي انجام کار بدست مي آيد. هر قدر اين مقدار به يک نزديکتر باشد بيانگر به موقع انجام شدن فعاليتهاي پروژه مي باشد.

    Demand: نياز به نوعي قطعه يا محصول مي باشد. نياز ممکن از برگرفته از منابع متعددي از قبيل پيش بيني ها، سفارش مشتريان و يا برنامه ريزي هاي داخلي سازمان باشد. در سطوح محصول نهايي نياز با فروش متفاوت است زيرا ممکن است نيازي وجود داشته باشد که به فروش نرسد و يا بلعکس.

    Dependent demand: نيازي که برگرفته از مواد اوليه مورد مصرف در محصولات نهايي است BOM. مواد مورد نياز مي توانند نياز وابسته و يا غير وابسته باشند. به عنوان مثال بنزين مورد استفاده در ليفتراک يکي از موادي است که مورد نياز است ولي غير وابسته به BOM محصولات نهايي است.

    Dispatching rule: قانون منطقي است که براي اولويت بندي کارهاي مورد نياز در مراکز کاري از آن استفاده مي کنند.

    Demonstrated capacity: ظرفيت تائيد شده که توسط داده هاي منطقي و واقعي مورد محاسبه قرار گرفته است. معمولا از ضرب متوسط توليدي در نفرساعت مورد نياز براي توليد هر محصول محاسبه مي گردد.

    Dispatch list: ليست سفارشات توليد که بر اساس اولويت بندي تهيه شده است. ليست که به صورت تصويري يا کاغذي تهيه مي گردد و در خطوط توليدي مورد استفاده قرار مي گيرد و شامل اطلاعات دقيقي از اولويت هاي توليدي، مکان هاي توليدي، تعداد توليد و نيازمندي هاي ظرفيت ها مي گردد. اين ليست معمولا به صورت روزانه تهيه مي گردد و به خطوط توليدي ارائه مي گردد.

    Distribution: عمل جابجايي محصولات نهايي از توليد کننده تا مشتري. اين فرآيند شامل سيستمهاي حمل و نقل، انبار داري، کنترل موجودي، تامين مواد، بررسي اجراي سفارشات، آناليز مکانهاي توليدي، بسته بندي، تحليل داده ها و ايجاد يک شبکه از مشتريان و تامين کنندگان مي باشد.

    Economic Order Quantity (EOQ): يک نوع روش محاسباتي براي مقداري از سفارش است که بهينه ترين حالت به لحاظ اقتصادي را براي خريدار داشته باشد. اين مقدار به هزينه نگهداري موجودي ها و ميزان نياز ساليانه از قطعه مورد نظر بستگي دارد و از تقسيم (2*نياز سالانه از قطعه*هزينه متوسط آماده سازي) بر (درصد هزينه سالانه نگهداري* قيمت واحد قطعه) به دست مي آيد.

    Efficiency: يک شاخص که معمولا به صورت درصد بيان مي شود و نشان دهنده ميزان خروجي واقعي نسبت به خروجي برنامه اي و استاندارد است. درصد کارائي بيان گر آن است که يک سيستم تا چه حد خوب و مثبت کار کرده است. اين شاخص با توجه به زمان توليد هر يک از محصولات مورد محاسبه قرار مي گيرد و برابر است به زمان صرف شده جهت توليد واقعي تقسيم بر زمان مورد نياز جهت برنامه مشخص شده در يک دوره زماني معين. براي مثال اگر در مدت زمان يک هفته قرار باشد به اندازه 800 عدد از محصولي توليد کنيم (برنامه با توجه به ظرفيت محاسبه شده است) و در واقع 780 عدد توليد کرده ايم به اين ترتيب کارائي برابر با 97.5 درصد خواهد بود.

    80-20 : قانوني که مرجع اصلي آن اصل پارتو است. اين اصل بيان مي کند که 80 درصد خرابي ها از 20 درص مشکلات اصلي ناشي مي شود. به اين ترتيب با استخراج مشکلات و اولويت بندي کردن آنها و برطرف کردن 20 درصد اوليه آنها،‌ 80 درصد مشکلات حل خواهد شد.

    EOQ=1: کاهش دادن زمان راه اندازي دستگاهها تا جايي که درصورت توليد بچ هاي يک عددي توليد بهينه و اقتصادي باشد.

    Finite loading: برنامه ريزي براي يک ايستگاه کاري در يک دوره زماني معين به اندازه ماکزيمم ظرفيت آن به شرطي که بيشتر از توان ايستگاه مربوطه نباشد.

    Firm planned order (FPO): سفارش برنامه ريزي شده اي که براي يک دوره معين و تعداد معين نهايي و تائيد شده است. در اين نوع برنامه هاي تائيد شده برنامه هاي کامپيوتري به گونه اي تنظيم مي گردند که کاربران توانايي تغييرات را بعد از نهايي شدن برنامه نداشته باشند. اين برنامه از تعهدات تامين کننده مي باشد و بايستي با توجه به تعداد تعيين شده در زمان مقرر آماده گردد. اين تکنيک به برنامه ريزان اجازه مي دهد تا بتوانند روي برنامه ريزي احتياجات مواد با خيال راحت کار کنند و ظرفيت ها توليدي را به راحتي تخصيص دهند. اين متد از روش هاي تبين شده در MPS است.

    Forward flow scheduling: فرايندي است که برنامه زمان بندي شده اي را از ابتدا تا انتها به صورت مرحله به مرحله مورد بررسي قرار مي دهد.

    Independent demand: نياز براي قطعات يا موادي که ارتباطي با BOM محصولات ندارند. به عنان مثال مواد مورد استفاده جهت تميز کردن زمين کارگاه هاي توليدي.

    Infinite loading: محاسبه اي که در يک استگاه کاري بدون در نظر گرفتن ماکزيمم ظرفيت موجود در آن ايستگاه انجام مي شود.

    Input and out put control: تکنيکي است جهت کنترل ظرفيت ها زماني که برنامه ريزي شده اند. در اين تکنيک هدف اصلي مقايسه و مانيتور کردن خروجي و ورودي به صورت واقعي مي باشد.برنامه وروديها و خروجي ها براي هر ايستگاه کاري توسط برنامه ريزي احتياجات ظرفيت CRP تهيه شده و توسط مدير توليد تائيد مي گردد. در واقع با مقايسه خروجي و ورودي واقعي با خروجي و ورودي برنامه ريزي شده مشکلات و گلوگاه هاي موجود در دو مسير معين مي گردد.

    منبع:iiend.com




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